Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey—V15
from Borsting EJ, Rouse MW, Mitchell GL, Cotter SA et al. (2003) Validity and reliability of the revised convergence insufficiency symptom survey in children aged 9 to 18 years. Optom Vis Sci 80:832=-838.
Dyslexia is a learning disability that impairs a person’s ability to read, and which can manifest itself as a difficulty with phonological awareness, phonological decoding, orthographic coding, auditory short-term memory, and/or rapid naming. Dyslexia is separate and distinct from reading difficulties resulting from other causes, such as a non-neurological deficiency with vision or hearing, or from poor or inadequate reading instruction. It is estimated that dyslexia affects between 5 and 17 percent of the population.
There are three proposed cognitive subtypes of dyslexia: auditory, visual and attentional. Although dyslexia is not an intellectual disability, it is considered both a learning disability and a reading disability. Dyslexia and IQ are not interrelated, since reading and cognition develop independently in individuals who have dyslexia.
Spoken language is a universal form of man made communication. The visual notation of speech, written language is not found in all cultures and is a recent development with regard to human evolution.
There are many definitions of dyslexia but no official consensus has been reached.
The World Federation of Neurology defines dyslexia as “a disorder manifested by difficulty in learning to read despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence and sociocultural opportunity”.
MedlinePlus and the National Institutes of Health define dyslexia as “a reading disability resulting from the inability to process graphic symbols”.
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke gives the following definition for dyslexia:
“Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a person’s ability to read. These individuals typically read at levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder varies from person to person, common characteristics among people with dyslexia are difficulty with spelling, phonological processing (the manipulation of sounds), and/or rapid visual-verbal responding. In adults, dyslexia usually occurs after a brain injury or in the context of dementia. It can also be inherited in some families, and recent studies have identified a number of genes that may predispose an individual to developing dyslexia”.
Other published definitions are purely descriptive or embody causal theories. Varying definitions are used for dyslexia from researchers and organizations around the world; it appears that this disorder encompasses a number of reading skills, deficits and difficulties with a number of causes rather than a single condition.
Castles and Coltheart describe phonological and surface types of developmental dyslexia by analogy to classical subtypes of alexia (acquired dyslexia) which are classified according to the rate of errors in reading non-words. However, the distinction between surface and phonological dyslexia has not replaced the old empirical terminology of dysphonetic versus dyseidetic types of dyslexia. The surface/phonological distinction is only descriptive, and devoid of any aetiological assumption as to the underlying brain mechanisms. In contrast, the dysphonetic/dyseidetic distinction refers to two different mechanisms; one that relates to a speech discrimination deficit, and another that relates to a visual perception impairment.
ADHD is a common behavioral disorder that affects an estimated 8% to 10% of school-age children. Boys are about three times more likely than girls to be diagnosed with it, though it’s not yet understood why.
Kids with ADHD act without thinking, are hyperactive, and have trouble focusing. They may understand what’s expected of them but have trouble following through because they can’t sit still, pay attention, or attend to details.
Of course, all kids (especially younger ones) act this way at times, particularly when they’re anxious or excited. But the difference with ADHD is that symptoms are present over a longer period of time and occur in different settings. They impair a child’s ability to function socially, academically, and at home.
The good news is that with proper treatment, kids with ADHD can learn to successfully live with and manage their symptoms.
Today we have extensive knowledge about how the brain works — so if a child is having trouble in school or taking 4 hours to do homework get the help they need.
Dyslexia (dis-lek-see-uh) is a learning disability Kids who have trouble with math may have dyscalculia (say: dis-kal-kyoo-lee-uh). And people who have trouble forming letters when they write may have dysgraphia (say: dis-graf-ee-uh). Other kids may have language disorders, meaning they have trouble understanding language and understanding what they read.
It can be confusing, though. What qualifies as “trouble” enough to be diagnosed as a learning disability? Reading, doing math, and writing letters may be tough for lots of kids at first. But when those early troubles don’t fade away, and it’s really difficult to make any progress, it’s possible the kid has a learning disability.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is sometimes thought of as a learning disability but it’s not usually considered one. Why? Because most kids with ADHD can learn in school without special assistance, even though they may be easily distracted or have trouble sitting still in class. Although ADHD itself isn’t a learning disability, researchers believe kids with ADHD may be more likely to have learning disabilities.
Betsy J. Schooley, Creator and Director, was a classroom teacher for over 25 years. She holds a lifetime teaching credential from the State of California, as well as California State Certificates in Language Development, CLAD, and Spanish Bilingual. She earned a B.S.from the University of Illinois and an M.A. from San Francisco State.
When Betsy began teaching in the 1970’s, scientists were beginning to understand more about the brain and learning, but this information was not available to the average classroom teacher. Even in the 1990’s, when neuroscience began to publish extraordinary research in brain plasticity, teachers were never urged to use the information gleaned from these studies as a basis for instruction. In all Betsy’s years as a classroom teacher, only one in-service dealt with how brain work could help students. It is no wonder that few teachers use brain-based methodology to help children learn!
When Betsy retired from classroom teaching in 2004, she wanted to find a way to help those types of students who she had seen struggling. She took a Neuro Biology class at UC Berkeley to become familiar with brain terms and functions. She then began to research people who had made a difference. She went to conferences and workshops to learn more about how the brain controls or affects different aspects of learning. She read every book she could find on ADHD, ADD, Dyslexia, and the Brain–from the Dali Lama to Dr. Norman Doidge, Dr. Eric Kandel, Dr. Michael Merzenich, and Dr. Charles Krebs. Brain Ways is the result of 25+ years of teaching combined with Betsy’s extensive research into the recent advancements in the study of the brain and learning.
Brain Ways is a one-to-one program consisting of exercises designed to stimulate the learner’s vestibular sense to strengthen information processing. Brain Ways has had success with many learning difficulties, including Sensory Integration Dysfunction, Auditory Processing problems, Vision Processing difficulties, Dyslexia, ADD, ADHD, and developmental problems with motor skills–from gross skills such as running and kicking, to the fine motor skills involved in handwriting.
Structure of Intellect, SOI® assesses learners’ aptitudes. It is so wonderful when kids come to Brain Ways and learn they are so smart, maybe even genius level, in a few areas. It really starts kids off positively after hearing only negatives in school for years. The SOI® reports on learning style, academic strengths and weaknesses, and, if there is an underlying vision and/or auditory problem. Dr. Frank Belgau developed The Learning Breakthrough Program and Brain Ways clients use any and all of his boards along with hundreds of pendulum ball biofeedback activities. Retained Primitive and Postural Reflexes are assessed and worked on. Brain Gym® is used with each learner and assigned as a daily activity. Vision Therapy is available for those who need it. Nearly every client works on Auditory Processing via the vestibular work and The Listening Program®. Links to all of Betsy’s mentors can be found on the BrainWaysLinks above.
The Learning Breakthrough Program is a deceptively simple program approved for use by Ed Hallowell as a “strength-based” treatment for ADHD, Dyslexia and learning difficulties. Dr. Edward (Ned) Hallowell, ADHD expert and best-selling author, announces making the Learning Breakthrough Program available at the prestigious Hallowell Centers in both Massachusetts and New York. Dr. Hallowell’s inclusion of Learning Breakthrough’s proven balance and sensory remediation program is a welcome addition to the therapy options offered at his US centers.
Learning Breakthrough will be critical to his positive, multidisciplinary, “strength-based” treatment approach and is being used to help solve the challenges of ADHD, Dyslexia, CAPD as well as other cognitive needs. The program’s value lies in enabling clients to further their developmental and academic objectives as well as social, behavioral and self-esteem ones, which is exactly why it has been so valuable as a complementary treatment in similar clinics for decades. Brain Ways has been using the Belgau Platform Board and Pendulum Ball activities since the first days when Brain Ways was called Rewire.